Hello. It looks like you�re using an ad blocker that may prevent our website from working properly. To receive the best Tortoise experience possible, please make sure any blockers are switched off and refresh the page.

If you have any questions or need help, let us know at memberhelp@tortoisemedia.com

Episode 4

The Kaleidoscope

The Kaleidoscope


There is a new layer of horror to Chris’s story – and in trying to understand it, Basia investigates the evidence that Chris was killed on purpose. The team figures out how to get to South Sudan – and how to finally meet the essay-writer


Basia Cummings, narrating: Just a warning before we start, this episode contains descriptions of graphic violence.

So, I’d just spoken to Swampy. Whose real name is Chris Garrett. He’s the former tree surgeon, former volunteer fighter, who’s in Ukraine. And he said to me, well he told me what to do, he said ‘You should Google “Craig Lang, Ukraine, Sudan.” So that’s what I’ve done.

The first few things that come up are things I’ve already seen, they’re about the double murder in Florida that Craig is accused of. 

But as I dug a bit deeper, I managed to find the legal documents that were published with the murder charge in Florida. And in those there’s a statement by an FBI officer and it’s really interesting. 

It says that in June of 2017. That’s two months before Christopher Allen goes to South Sudan himself, Craig Lang and two other people from Ukraine entered South Sudan, were arrested, and deported. So, that confirms that that trip happened. 

But as I kept going there’s another fascinating thing that I found in this pretty obscure article. It’s really just one line. It’s a quote from a South Sudanese Government spokesman who said that those three men, including Craig Lang, had been deported, and that they claimed to be journalists. But I know Craig Lang wasn’t a journalist, he was a fighter.

So, the obvious question now is, were these two trips connected, Chris’ and the mercenaries. If the South Sudanese thought that these mercenaries were pretending to be journalists, is that what they thought Chris was doing? Could that be why he was killed?

Reporting this story feels a bit like looking into a kaleidoscope.

You know those things that as you turn them coloured shards inside start to shift and make new shapes. 

It’s not necessarily what you know about Chris that makes the difference, it’s how you piece it all together. 

Each new discovery is like a turn of the dial, all the facts falling together in a new way and a new picture emerges. 

And I say this because the FBI statement and this news article prompts a turn of the dial. 

Chris had become close to some of the fighters. But now it’s all significant in a new way. It’s part of a different picture. 

Like I remember that Joyce told us in Maine that Craig Lang had stayed at Chris’s apartment in Kyiv. 

Joyce: I don’t think it was this planned thing. Chris was surprised that he was, I mean there was no time to argue with him. 

John Allen: Yeah, they might have slept a night there or something, on the floor. We don’t really know, I don’t think, very much about how close that relationship was.

Basia, narrating: Now, everything in my mind is pointing to those two critical months, July and August 2017, the month before and the month of Chris’ trip.

I’m Basia Cummings, and from Tortoise, this is Pig Iron. Episode 4: The Kaleidoscope

Basia: It’s a difficult thing to talk about.

Helena: Yeah, it’s been a long, long time since anybody asked me about Chris. So, it’s something that I had put somewhere, and I locked the doors and I don’t know if I’m going to be able. I mean, we’ll see, um, we’ll see if I’ll be able to open them again, but let’s see what comes out of it.

Basia, narrating: The person I speak to next was, I think, one of the closest to Chris in the months before his death. Helena, his girlfriend. 

She was 22 when he was killed, a student from Belgium. 

Basia: Do you remember when you first met Chris and how you met him? 

Helena: I do. I think, I mean, it was funny because you told me over the phone, that Chris met Jeremy in 2015 in Paris for the first time. And so, when he came back from that trip, he met me for the first time. 

Basia, narrating: During our conversation, the doors did seem to open for Helena, little by little. 

She told me about the two years they’d had together. How they’d fallen in love, sharing books and adventures. 

Helena: I remember telling a story about the time he got captured by the Separatists. They said that they were gonna cut his ear off, so that was a story that intrigued me obviously.

Basia: It’s pretty impressive for a first date.

Helena: That’s true.

Basia, narrating: Helena told me about a trip they’d taken together to Belarus.

One, where Chris talked about the fighters; about who they were, and what they meant to him.

Helena: And there, we had the conversation about what it means to be good. And this is something I remember because he was talking, I mean, he was hanging out with these people of Right Sector, Azov and you wouldn’t say they were good people in a sense that, now I have to watch my words. I don’t know what I can say, but like Chris told me stories about them and you wouldn’t say they were nice people. They weren’t good people, but Chris believed or wanted to believe that they were good on a different level. I mean, that’s what he told me. Like, I think they’re good on a deeper level because when I’m with them, they care for me, and they stand up for me and they will help me if I’m in trouble and that they had really connected that they were friends. And then we were talking about like, can you really be friends with people of the far-right that have certain thoughts, certain opinions, but Chris was, I mean, he was friends with them.

Basia: How did you interpret what he was saying to you? Did you believe that what he was saying could be possible? 

Helena: No, I think differently about this and also back then, I mean, yeah, you can be friends, you can be friends. But at some point, I mean, there are, there are borders crossed.

Basia, narrating: I get the feeling, again, that Chris struggled to reconcile his two worlds. 

On the one hand, he had Helena, his parents: kind, good people, far from the battlefield. 

 And on the other, there were the fighters and his inescapable draw to people like Craig Lang.

Basia: Did he ever mention to you an episode with some of his mercenary foreign fighter friends that they had gone to South Sudan, or they had wanted to go? Did he mention that to you? 

Helena: Yeah, but that was really under, in the later stages. That was in the last week we saw each other or something.

Basia: Did you get a sense that that had happened then or had happened some time previously?

Helena: That his friends went to South Sudan? I don’t know I couldn’t say because my memories playing. Yeah, I don’t know.

Basia, narrating: Memory is always slippery, in grief even more so. 

And it was nearly 2 hours into our interview, with those doors now open, that Helena really let me in.  And there, I learned about the horror that still haunts her, as she gripped a scarf that had belonged to Chris. 

Helena: I needed to be close to them. And once I was there it came clear that there were things to be done.

Basia, narrating: She was telling me about how she’d travelled to the US to be with Chris’ parents soon after he was killed.

Helena: We met with the funeral director and there was such a crazy conversation. So, he was saying like, if you want an open casket then, well, we’re probably going to have to give him some sort of hat. But that will be very unnatural or something. And they would say like, yeah, I mean, obviously I’ll put a lot of makeup, so you wouldn’t really look, I mean, it was a horrible conversation. 

Basia: And why would they suggest putting a hat on him?

Helena: There is this thing, this conversation that I had with Joyce over the phone, but actually I have never been sure if that conversation really happened. I mean, she said something really horrible about what had happened to Chris. I don’t know if, I don’t know if she actually really said that, but at the same time, I also don’t think I’m going to make that up, or she said that, uh, they took his brain out. That’s what I remember. And then she was like, who would do something like that and why?

Basia: I mean, that, you didn’t make that up. 

Helena: Okay. 

Basia: One of the things that we would like to try and answer is what happened, because in the post-mortem the pathologist just does suggest that it’s missing 

Helena: That it’s missing?

Basia: That it wasn’t there at the time that the post-mortem was conducted.

Helena: Oh wow. Fuck it. I really thought I made that up. Wow, there’s a lot more questions than I thought. I thought I had all the answers, or I thought I had a good idea about what happened.

Basia, narrating: I need to explain.

When Jeremy first came to me with this story, there was one detail that stood out from the rest. 

And it concerns what happened to Chris’s body in South Sudan. 

It’s something that, understandably, has shaped the family’s idea that this was more than just an accident, before the connection to the fighters, before the mystery essay arrived.

And it comes, in part, from the pathologist, the man who performed the post-mortem in San Diego; and really, it comes from a single line in his autopsy report.

Basia: Okay, so I’ve got the autopsy report in front of me.

Basia, narrating: Chris was shot 5 times. Once to the head, twice to the neck, and once in each leg. There were no signs of torture. 

Basia: But at the end of the second page, and it goes through those injuries in some detail in kind of bullet points. But at the end of the second page, it says that his body was partially embalmed. And as a sub clause on there, it says that the right and left cerebral hemispheres were not identified at autopsy. And then in brackets, it says removed remotely prior to arrival of body at SDMEO, which…

Basia, narrating: It’s a phrase that adds a new layer of horrendous possibilities for Chris’ parents. His body had been in the custody of the South Sudanese government for a number of days before being handed over to the US embassy, could they have tampered with his body? Or the soldiers who killed him? Could they have been removing evidence?

It’s all possible, in that phrase, ‘removed remotely’. Because the word removed suggests a remover. It suggests intent. 

And John and Joyce have, over the years, tried to confirm what exactly the pathologist had meant by it. 

But when they’d tried to contact him, they didn’t get a reply, and when they pushed again, his response did little to clarify anything. 

So, I try to reach the pathologist myself. He’s called Robert Stabley. 

Jeremy warns me that it’s unlikely I’ll get a reply. 

I’ve emailed him twice, asking to discuss the post-mortem.  


It’s not only the matter of Chris’s brain which feeds the idea that something more sinister happened to him.

There are two photographs too. 

And after making sense of the post-mortem, Jeremy suggests it’s time I look at them myself.

Basia: Shall I come around? 

Jeremy Bliss: So, these, appeared on a number of different websites and chat forums. 

Basia, narrating: They are disturbing, but important pieces of evidence. And just to warn you, I’m going to describe them to you. 

Basia: So, he is lying in some grass. He is beside what looks like a Ziploc bag. His, he’s wearing a long sleeve top, that’s sort of pulled up around his chest. You can see on his left hand; he’s got a piece of red material tied around his wrist. And he’s clearly been shot in the head because it looks like quite a lot of his skull is missing.

Jeremy: Looks like that. Yeah. 

Basia: And there’s blood in the grass and his eyes are open and I, yeah, I cannot imagine how distressing that would’ve been to see as his parents. Did they see these 

Jeremy: Dunno about John? Joyce has, but, um… 

Basia: I mean that is an utterly awful image to publish anywhere.

Basia, narrating: In the second image, you can see that Chris’s trousers have been pulled down, exposing his genitals. It’s clearly an act of humiliation and is even more upsetting to look at.  

Basia: I think it’s important to, for me to see them. One, to understand or to try and understand what happened to him. Two it’s, it’s important for the question of targeting for me to understand. It’s also important, I think, from a war crimes question about how the body was treated.

Jeremy: Absolutely. 

Basia: Yeah. I, I think, I don’t think I can really join you in this. If I haven’t seen them 

Jeremy: It’s also very difficult to report on a story without knowing.

Basia, narrating: Why do that to a person you didn’t mean to kill? 

It’s exactly because the photographs could suggest intent to kill, that they have become an important part of the family’s legal case calling for an official investigation. 

And on top of that, their lawyers argue that humiliating Chris’s body could constitute a war crime. 

Basia: How do you feel looking at these again? 

Jeremy: Uh, quite unsettled. 

Basia, narrating: Both the post-mortem, and the photographs, had added together to make Chris’s family feel like someone meant to kill him. 

But because the original pathologist still isn’t answering my emails. 

I turn to another man.

Claas Buschman: And he was taken from South Sudan to London to San Diego where the autopsy took place. And that autopsy…

Basia, narrating: I was introduced to Dr Claas Buschman through working on another story involving a horrible death. Claas works at University Hospital in Kiel, Germany. 

Basia: I’d like to talk to you about your interpretation of the post-mortem, and the details of it, 

Basia, narrating: What I want to know is whether he can explain what might have happened to Chris’s brain and explain why it wasn’t there at the time of the post-mortem 14 days after Chris was killed. 

It’s a crucial question. If we can understand what happened to it, we can figure out if it could be evidence that he was killed on purpose, or not.

Claas: Parts of the brain were missing. Large parts of the brain were missing. The brainstem was there, and the cerebellum was also there. And this, in my mind fits rather perfectly to the injury pattern.

Because Mr. Allen was shot in the head or in the neck, obviously from a larger distance with obviously large war ammunition, maybe machine gun or something. And this is in high energetic, high kinetic trauma. And this might cause the, the part of the body which exits, especially when it comes to boney structures and to literally explode. 

Basia, narrating: It’s a phenomenon called the Kronlein shot, named after a Swiss surgeon called Rudolf Ulrich Krönlein.

In 1899, he observed how a high-velocity bullet can remove a brain. 

And it tallied with what Claas was saying, that a long-distance shot could have done this to Chris. 

Claas: But I think we can see, or at least assume that parts of the brain were lying in the grass and the skull is opened due to the injury pattern. It is the most probable explanation for the missing parts of the brain at autopsy. So, it’s actually not something that surprises me or that I’ve never seen before as a forensic pathologist

Basia: you have seen something like this before. 

Claas: Yes. We have seen shots to the head, gunshots to the head with similar injury patterns. 

In preparation of this podcast of this interview, I checked the internet for sure about the case. There was a discussion or an argument about the fact whether there has been crossfire or not. I think the only thing we can say is that from a forensic point of view, death happened immediately after he was hit. 

Basia, narrating: When I look up examples of a Kronlein shot in medical journals, all the images look precisely like that first picture of Chris’s that Jeremy had shown me.  

It really seems like this could explain Chris’s missing brain. 

Dr Claas isn’t the only one to say so. Two other experts in neuropathology and ballistics say the same thing.

To me, it feels fairly definitive. Something concrete. 

Basia: If two leading pathologists, look at the post-mortem and say, this isn’t unusual, the bullet probably removed the brain. What would you think then? 

Jeremy: I mean, I hear it, but I just think the real, the person, the only person who saw the actual wound that’s medical is Stabley, and it’s just very difficult. Not having him comment on it in some detailed way.

Basia: But if he won’t do that? 

Jeremy: Yeah, it’s just a very difficult thing. I guess we’ll have a probable, it will be a balance of probabilities won’t it.

Basia: But isn’t that all, all we’re likely to have five years on?

Jeremy: Well, depends, I don’t know, if Stabley were to talk perhaps not.

Basia: Well, I’ve tried him twice, so…

Jeremy: He’s obviously not keen to be in the podcast.

Basia, narrating: This question of what happened to Chris’s brain is one of the darker parts of the story that has always been obscured from view. Before now, it’s not been a public detail. 

And it’s a detail I’ve thought about when I’ve spoken to journalists who familiar with South Sudan. 

Because many of them wonder if maybe the family, and Jeremy, have fallen into a conspiracy theory with the idea that Chris was killed on purpose. The consensus seems to be, Chris was killed in crossfire. End of story. Best leave it alone. 

But then, I remember what Chris’s parents have had to think about; those photographs, the suggestion of a missing brain, and now this mysterious letter.

And that’s not all. 

Jeremy: Okay. My notes are a little bit scattered, so just bear with me as I go through them. 

Basia, narrating: One afternoon, we’re sitting together going back through evidence and Jeremy tells me about a tip-off he’d been sent a couple of years ago.  

The information he received from a source focuses on Chris’s movement just as he arrived in Uganda, before crossing the border into South Sudan. 

It’s a claim that involves the much-feared National Security Service in South Sudan, the NSS. 

Jeremy: He had a NSS source.  um, who claimed that Chris’ killing was premeditated and that he was tracked from…

Basia, narrating: The NSS is a security network that essentially runs South Sudan, it sows fear and violence, and clamps down on free speech and any political opposition to the President, a man called Salva Kier. And to his party, which is called the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. The SPLM.

The source told Jeremy that maybe the Ugandans tipped the NSS off, that Chris or a western journalist was with the rebel spokesman. Maybe this could have led to his death. That would make sense, Uganda and South Sudan are very friendly.

Basia: And did you ask him for any evidence beyond this call?

Jeremy: I don’t think anyone had any hard and fast proof. That was the problem. Everyone was just speaking to their sources, and unable to, as they say, corroborate anything.

Basia: I don’t know where the ethical line is with the, you know, as in like, if I knew these things, but I couldn’t stand them up. I don’t know whether I would tell you if I was in this person’s position, because it will massively influence how you think about the death of your cousin, but without evidence. And now you have all of these hints, but it might be, I don’t know, it might, it might be too late, or it might be impossible to get the evidence

Jeremy: Look, he was very clear about making certain, I knew a lot of this, all of this was rumour. And nothing had been substantiated, so I really can’t blame him for putting false thoughts in my head, which I did not have.

Basia, narrating: With all this swirling in my head, all this rumour, I call a Canadian journalist. 

Sam Mednick. 

She is more open than other journalists to speak about Chris. 

Sam Mednick: It was very sad. It was, it was shocking. And I think everyone wanted answers.

Basia, narrating: Sam was in South Sudan when Chris was killed, working for the Associated Press, a big American news agency. Now she lives in Burkina Faso, and we spoke in between her many reporting trips. 

And she did her own investigation into what happened to him, published in the South African newspaper, the Mail & Guardian, in 2019, two years after he was killed. 

Sam: You know, as a journalist, when something like this happens, you start digging, you start asking questions, you know what happened? 

Basia, narrating: Sam’s reporting was really important for Chris’s family, and for their legal team. 

Because she interviewed government soldiers who said they saw Chris taking pictures. 

And they told her it didn’t occur to them that Chris might have been a journalist. 

One sergeant said: “We saw him taking photos, we thought he was a white rebel that was filming.”

 So, I asked her what she made of the tip-off Jeremy had been sent. 

Basia: If the first allegation that, that he was tracked and targeted, because he was with the rebels that they knew he was gonna be there. Is that likely, is that a likely scenario based on your experience? 

Sam: There’s nothing in my reporting that speaks to the fact that he was tracked and targeted and followed in. I, I would have questions as to, you know, for what purpose and, and why would they be tracking him? And would even if they knew he was coming in with the opposition, you know, what would the reason be for them to follow him, track him? It’s really hard to speak to that. 

Basia: Do you think that getting to the truth of what happened on that day is possible? 

Sam: I think it’s always possible. I think it’s just, it could take time, but I also think there’s a point too, where it’s, you know, do we have as much as we’re ever going to have?

Basia, narrating: The thing is, we do have something new. 

There’s the essay and its curious author.

Who keeps telling us he wants to meet in person, because only then can he tell us what he really knows. 

So, after talking to Sam, it feels like the right time to figure out how we can get to South Sudan. 

Basia: So, we feel that we need to go to try and speak to some of these rebels, and to speak to these people who have made claims that, he was, Christopher Allen was targeted. I’m not a war reporter so I don’t have hostile environment training, neither does Gary. So, we feel that we need, some advice on how to approach this story, what precautions to take and we were hoping that you might be able to help. 

Basia, narrating: The first thing you do when you’re thinking of doing a dangerous reporting trip, if you have the luxury to work in a newsroom, is you consult a risk specialist. 

Someone who knows war and can help pick holes in whatever ambitious plan you’ve dreamed up for yourself. 

It’s a service that costs money, a service that Chris wouldn’t have been able to afford as a freelancer struggling to make ends meet. 

Frank Smythe: And I do a lot of risk assessments for groups investigating the murders of journalists including…

Basia, narrating: This is Frank Smythe. He works with the New York Times and a bunch of the big news organisations. 

I thought Frank would help us figure out the nuts and bolts of a trip to South Sudan.  

So, I recorded it on my phone, thinking this would just be for me, and for my producer Gary, and for Jeremy. 

But I underestimated Frank. 

Frank: So, I’m familiar with high-risk investigations, but this is even higher risk than most of those investigations, right? Mainly because it’s South Sudan, right? Mm. Which I would put up there with, uh, you know, Mexico might be a place on par or has other problems, a lot of journalists get killed with south SUD. The only place more dangerous I can think of would be the Central African Republic. 

Basia, narrating: Frank was telling us, think very carefully. 

And that’s before you introduce Jeremy into the mix. 

If you Google Jeremy, it’s immediately obvious that he’s Chris’s cousin and that could draw attention to us if we tried to enter South Sudan and start asking questions about Chris’s death.

Frank: But there’s an element to it that I’m not sure you’re gonna get where you want to go. I think it’s gonna be extremely dangerous to attempt to even get to where you want to go. I’m not sure you’re gonna arrive at the destination you’re looking for. Before we talk about risk, you know, risk assessment, hostile environment training. Yeah. You would need all that, but hostile environment training it’s like, it’s like, somebody gives you a few boxing lessons doesn’t mean you’re gonna get in the ring with Mike Tyson and survive. I like the fact that you guys wanna do this story, right it’s not a story that I’d be intrigued by, I both support it and I’m a little scared. You know, cause I really get it like, oh, this guy, he sounds like a man after my own heart. Right. He went a little too far and, and paid for it, unfortunately. Right. You know, um, you know, I’m not judging him. Right. You know, and I, and I wish his afterlife is a good one.

If there is one, right. Who knows. Right. But it’s also, at the same time, is it worth it to you? That’s what I’m questioning.

Basia, narrating: Risk, as I learn with each conversation I have, is an intimate thing. 

It’s something only you can measure; an internal compass pulling between the sometimes-competing directions of family, ambition, adventure, and purpose. 

And its partly why Chris’s story is so interesting, and so divisive. To some journalists I speak to, his trip was an enormously risky gamble, reckless; but others say, yeah, I probably would have done it myself. 

Amanda: I don’t think I would have made the leap that he made. And I think also, yeah, a lot of people generally felt like, you know, he kind of crossed the line. 

Sam: It’s a question that I asked myself a lot.

Goran: I think he was unlucky. It was a bad luck. 

Basia, narrating: And it feels uncomfortable, for me, letting you in on this bit, when our compass says: this is too risky for us. 

So, we need a plan B.

Jeremy: What about Kenya? 

Basia: Kenya I think is, is, is a different proposition. 

Jeremy: Let’s look into that. Don’t you think? 

Basia: Yes, I think so. Yeah. 

Jeremy: Where are you now? Can you meet us in Kenya? 

Basia, narrating: Now we need the essay-writer to agree to meet us in Kenya. 

Jeremy: Okay. Should I tell him we’re ready? Are we ready? 

Basia, narrating: For the essay-writer’s own safety, we aren’t telling you his name, we’ve disguised his voice, and won’t reveal anything about his identity. 

Essay Writer: Hello. 

Jeremy: Hi, it’s uh, Jeremy, how are you? 

Essay Writer: Fine, Jeremy I’m. Okay. Where, where, where am I speaking to you today, 

Basia, narrating: What we can say is that he’s speaking to us from a refugee camp. And we offer to cover the costs for him to travel to meet us in Nairobi.

Essay Writer: I will be very willingly be ready to travel, of course I don’t have any problem with that.

Jeremy: Do you think it’s safe for me to meet you? Is there any risk?

Essay Writer: Uh, um, no, there’s no risk at all, you know, what happened to Christopher Allen, touched, touched not only me, but the whole of my group. Uh, but anyway, it’s good that I’ll be meeting, uh, face to face and you’ll hear, yeah, cause I’ll talk more when we meet face to face,

Jeremy: Just before we go, do you know that the stuff that you put in that letter is true?

Essay Writer: Yes.

Jeremy: Okay. I’ll, uh, be in touch. 

Basia, narrating: The first hurdle has been cleared. 

Place. Date. Time. 

Basia: Well, it’s happening. 

Jeremy: It’s happening now. It’s a different prospect, sitting in the spare room in my house in Melbourne and making a call in December before Christmas. 

Basia, narrating: For something which could have been so complicated to arrange, it all feels unnervingly straightforward. 

But then, the essay-writer’s tone starts to change. 

Basia: You said, hey, can I start checking out whether exactly you are, who you say you are?

Jeremy: Yeah. So, I followed up with that. Um, and he said, he eventually responded and he said, uh, look, it’s okay. But I prefer that it happens after our Nairobi meeting.

Basia, narrating: We want to check if this guy is who he says he is. 

In the essay, he lists name after name, people he says who can vouch for him. 

But after initially being open to us doing this, he changes his mind. 

He becomes much colder. 

Jeremy: So, I started to think this doesn’t feel good. Yeah. Um, so I said, well, who can I contact? He, he said, let’s meet first and we can arrange that jointly. And so, then I thought this is actually getting really quite bad.

Basia:  Yeah.

Jeremy:  So, I said, why is that? And then he got angry, and he said to me, so choose any contact and that’s it. And I said, I don’t wanna do anything to upset you, but I’m keen to understand your thoughts. Then he, he said, then you wait 

Basia:  So, so you are saying to him, I want to contact any number of the people that you put in the essay as referees. And he’s saying….

Jeremy: Wait,

Basia, narrating: Something is different. 

Basia: But also what has to wait until we see each other in person. That’s just the other thing that’s slightly freaking me out. Like, why can none of this happen beforehand? 

Basia, narrating: Next time, in episode five 

Essay Writer: Death is always so painful. And one cannot keep quiet.

Helena: We’re actually right over South Sudan now, coming up over Juba.  

Jeremy: This is a very increasingly crazy journey I guess.

Essay Writer: Truth is always painful and it is hard to understand.

Basia: Do you think we will understand, in the end. Or do you think the truth is going to be, there’s too many shades in South Sudan.

Basia, narrating: This series is reported and written by me, Basia Cummings. Additional investigation is by Jeremy Bliss. The producer is Gary Marshall. Location recording by Christopher Esterguard. Additional reporting and editing by Xavier Greenwood. Additional editing by David Taylor. Sound design is by Karla Patella. Original theme by Tom Kinsella

With thanks to Charlotte Alfred, Richard Stupart, Brian Adeba, Halima Athumani, Bob Seddon, Dr Jakob Matschke, 

The Executive Producer is Ceri Thomas 

Pig Iron is a Tortoise Production